Role of Artificial Intelligence in Forensic Science for Criminal Investigation

Role of Artificial Intelligence in Forensic Science for Criminal Investigation

In the recent scenario of India, law and order is something which we should emphasize on a better level. It has been observed that forensic experts face issues and challenges when it comes to investigating crimes and at the same time taking care of their safety. Security Services in India, face tricky situations depending on a particular situation. However, we would like to discuss Artificial intelligence hereafter referred to as “AI” which by far is one of the better tools today used by specialists in forensic science or can also destroy the expertise of a forensic expert by being its worst enemy. One of the quotes that we remember is.

“The greatest danger of artificial intelligence is that people conclude too early that they understand it” – Eliezer Yudkowsky

The term “AI” was coined in 1956. It has become more than popular not just in data analytics and advanced algorithms and has successfully paved its entry into the domain of Forensics. Whether it is matching fingerprints, conducting post-mortem, or producing post facto forensic reports, this is helpful for all. As we know forensic investigation involves extensive research and collection of evidence from different sources and then consolidating the same to arrive at certain logical conclusions which helps the experts further in the case. However, while doing so one has to handle large chunks of data that need to analyse thoroughly that can be made possible through various databases to find the perfect match (if any), that can be chaotic and confusing. Thus, AI helps experts with handling large and complex data effectively and perform analysis at various levels during an investigation. It saves a considerable amount of time which is an essential part while solving a complex case but is most often looked down upon or neglected. Handling of this data is also crucial, as it ensures the data that collected, is stored, and analysed safely and is accessible to only people associated with the investigation and can be easily accessed and retrieved whenever the need occurs.

There are times when certain cases exhibit peculiar and complex patterns which are difficult to keep track of and sometimes do skip an investigator’s cognizance, this is when AI makes life easier by helping the investigators recognize those patterns such as identifying different elements of one image, detecting patterns in emails and messages, and matching new information with different types of existing data in the system databases.

AI also helps in matching the suspect’s information with the already existing databases and records and passing the required information to investigators of any previous activity that the concerned suspect may have been involved in. One of the most crucial parts of the investigation, is the evidence without which solving any crime is nearly impossible and maybe rightly negated no matter how intuitive or evident it might appear to one. AI plays a significant role by aiding the experts in giving evidence a graphical representation of hypothetical theories and offers statistical tools which can be a big breakthrough in cases. Data mining and knowledge discovery are other fields that require the use of AI. Data mining is a combination of AI, statistical analysis, and probabilistic methods that are all used together to collect and analyse large samples of data as for the enormous size of data, normal computational methods may not prove useful. Globally investigation agencies understand the crucial inputs provided by forensic science, and digital forensic fighting crime and solving complex investigation cases.

In AI algorithms play a significant role in helping digital forensics investigators globally. To analyse a great amount of data that is created by mobile and computer devices and stored on online platforms like cloud, drives, etc. Like many industries, demand outstrips supply when it comes to qualified, trained professionals who can shift through the backlog of digital forensics data relevant to modern criminal cases. AI can help in the automation of some processes and more quickly can highlight and raise a flag or provide insights that data which otherwise take investigators a lot of manhours and efforts to uncover.

And when it comes to criminal investigations, AI can be a great tool in many expects like –

  1. Data analysis and availability to support the investigation.
  2. Addressing well-scoped problems and methodology for cases.
  3. Pattern recognition.
  4. Explaining the reasoning process well.
  5. Reducing the level of false-positive or false negatives during analysis is very common in forensic science.
  6. Formally structuring the representation of knowledge which will also help the legal community in fast and accurate solution.
  7. Having a well-organized performance evaluation.
  8. Data mining and knowledge discoveries.
  9. Building statistical evidence.
  10. Integrating with current architecture, tools, and applications.

Recent miscarriages of justice are increasing the interest of legal practice towards scientifically founded ways of treating evidence. Forensic statistics along with artificial intelligence can provide such foundations. However, because of the communication gap between forensic experts dealing with statistics, crime investigators, and lawyers, statistical evidence is easily misinterpreted and misunderstood in court, resulting in incorrect decisions. Therefore, some methods must be developed to support communication between the parties involved which will act as a bridge to resolve the problems between them. Since lawyers are more used to think in terms of arguments and scenarios, a method can be developed that supports argumentation and narrative-based communication about statistical evidence, which will be built on AI models of argumentation and scenario construction or reconstruction. AI can help to develop a method in which the situation, or evidence, or series of crime can be explained to the jury by which they can understand the case/crime on a better level and according to that they can give better and true judgment.

In the end, we want to conclude on a note that – Yes artificial intelligence is now emerging as the most crucial applied science in all spears of life. Likewise, the forensic field is also getting benefitted from it, until our system does not start getting completely dependent on it. More and more people are understanding the impact of AI in everybody’s life and trying their best to understand it from digital science which is now in everybody’s pocket. But we think even if AI is changing the way of life still, in forensics there is and there will always be the need for the expertise. AI can never work, understand, analyse, and interpret as efficiently as a forensic expert, scientist, or investigator. Yes, it can make their work easy, but it can never replace them. As forensic science is a field of experts and AI can never match that level it will just exist as a helping hand.

This content is meant for information only and should not be considered as an advice or legal opinion, or otherwise. AKGVG & Associates does not intend to advertise its services through this.

 Posted by:

Abhishek Saini

(Executive, Forensic)

AKGVG & Associates

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